Since the early 1990’s politicians and educational researchers have endeavoured to integrate standards for technological literacy into the so called STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) related areas. Previous definitions from the literature do not explore and identify: the ultimate outcome of technology entrepreneurship; the target of the ultimate outcomes; the mechanism used to deliver the ultimate outcomes; or the nature of the interdependence between technology entrepreneurship and scientific and technological advances.
This view is a major source for the widely spread picture of technology as being instrumental, as delivering instruments ordered from ‘elsewhere’, as means to ends specified outside of engineering, a picture that has served further to support the claim that technology is neutral with respect to values, discussed in Section 3.3.1. This view involves a considerable distortion of reality, however.
Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics such as Aldous Huxley ‘s Brave New World , Anthony Burgess ‘s A Clockwork Orange , and George Orwell ‘s Nineteen Eighty-Four In Goethe’s Faust , Faust selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology.
Given this perspective questions are raised as to the ‘taken for granted’ nature of technological standards referred to in ITEA and further points to the mediation between technology, human life and power that makes it possible to consider technology as a form of ‘materialiseret handling’ (Schraube 2009, 297).
In focusing on the practice of technology as sustained by engineers, similar to the way philosophy of science focuses on the practice of science as sustained by scientists, analytic philosophy of technology could be thought to amount to the philosophy of engineering.