Alan Kay, a brilliant polymath who has worked at Atari, Xerox, Apple, and Disney, came up with as good a definition of technology as I’ve heard. In focusing on the practice of technology as sustained by engineers, similar to the way philosophy of science focuses on the practice of science as sustained by scientists, analytic philosophy of technology could be thought to amount to the philosophy of engineering.
According to Niiniluoto, the theoretical framework of technology as the practice that is concerned with what the world should be like rather than is, the framework that forms the counterpoint to the descriptive framework of science, is design science.
A large portion of the remaining articles relate to the development of TL within STEM education in vocational or higher education and ultimately the review points to the term being anchored within policy documents discussing politician’s interest in school reform with a particularly TL focus found in USA and Australia.
To assess the quality of the journals where the 93 articles were published, criteria to identify a list of good” journals in technology innovation or entrepreneurship domains were first defined and then the journals that met the criteria were identified.
The mechanical arts emerged in the Middle Ages as a category encompassing traditional crafts like stonemasonry and shoemaking; it was certainly obsolete by World War I. Applied science, in contrast, is a contested 19th-century category that mainly refers to science used for practical ends.