A conceptual approach to deriving a technology development program is based on end state criteria. A large portion of the remaining articles relate to the development of TL within STEM education in vocational or higher education and ultimately the review points to the term being anchored within policy documents discussing politician’s interest in school reform with a particularly TL focus found in USA and Australia.
Students graduate from high school with the understanding of how technology affects daily decision making; with the ability to use processes and systems, along with a variety of tools and resources to solve problems; and with the ability to apply and interrelate concepts in science, mathematics, language arts, and social studies to address practical issues in a technological society.
The form of philosophy of technology constituted by the writings of these and others has been called by Carl Mitcham (1994) ‘humanities philosophy of technology’, because it takes its point of departure in the social sciences and the humanities rather than in the practice of technology.
Aristotle’s doctrine of the four causes—material, formal, efficient and final—can be regarded as a third early contribution to the philosophy of technology. Although the notion of an operational principle—a term that seems to originate with Polanyi (1958)—is central to engineering design, no single clear-cut definition of it seems to exist. The more scientists learn, the more technology allows us to do ‘” it’s very exciting. Other specializations may concern subject matters (e.g. science or language teaching) or approaches (direct instruction vs. project-oriented learning for example). An example of technology is ultra sound, MRI, CAT scans and other forms of nuclear imaging, which allow doctors to see inside the human body using a blending of medical technology, nuclear technology and computer technology.
Thus technology becomes, in one possible meaning, the sphere of activity concerned with” the application … for practical purposes” of the branch of knowledge dealing with the mechanical arts and applied sciences.” This mess probably means something like applying practical knowledge.” I’d flunk a student who gave such a definition as an answer on an exam.